You can download a printer friendly version from HERE

Third-person narratives are written in the third person (he / she / they / it) and are real or imaginary stories about another person or other people. It should consist of:
    An INTRODUCTION in which you set the scene (who was involved, time, place, etc) in an interesting way to help the reader imagine the scene and want to continue reading.
   A MAIN BODY consisting of 2 or more paragraphs in which you develop your story presenting the events in the order that they happened. 
   A CONCLUSION in which you say what happened at the end and refer to people’s feelings, final comments or reactions.

To make you narrative more interesting to the reader, you should:
·         Use a variety of adjectives or adverbs, such as imaginative, wonderful, etc instead of simplistic ones such as nice, good, well, etc
·         Use a variety of verbs such as wondered, screamed, etc to avoid using “said” all the time.
·         Use similes, i.e. expressions which describe people or things by comparing them to someone or something else. E.g. She ran like the wind.
·         Use present or past participles to join two simple sentences into one longer, more sophisticated sentence, e.g. Instead of He turned on the light. He saw someone in the room, you can write Turning on the light, he saw someone in the room.
·         Instead of She was relieved. She left the police station, you can write: Relieved, she left the police station



Mysterious creak on the staircase? Warm spot on your bed? Dog tags jangling when you’re all alone? Sensation of a phantom paw on your shoulder? Could be a ghost dog!

Maybe your beloved pet has passed away, or you’re standing upon an ancient dog run/burial ground. Maybe unbeknownst to you, your house was built on an old abandoned pet cemetery or you’re spending the night in an ancient castle turned bed and breakfast. Whatever the case may be, you’re experiencing paranormal pup activity and no surprise, these phantom pup sightings have been reported nationwide and around the world. People have witnessed ghost dogs going on ghost walks, felt the spirits of dogs long passed looking for scraps under the table and seen paranormal pooch energies resting peacefully in their old favorite spot by the fire.
Even Christopher Knight who played Peter on the original Brady Bunch saw ghost dogs!

So if you think you’ve seen the ghost or spirit of a dog, don’t feel crazy! You’re not alone.
Some say your pet dogs come back to visit you from beyond to make sure you’re okay, and to let you know they’re still watching over you. This can be a great comfort, especially if your pet has been taken from you suddenly, and you’re still grieving painfully. Then usually, after your ghost pet visits you, they move on to their next life, and they’re not seen again.

Now, other ghost dogs, who might more accurately be called apparitions, show up at certain landmarks frequently throughout time, to relatives and strangers alike. It’s like they’ve become part of the landscape. That, or they can’t give up their favorite chair.
At the Holly Hotel, in Holly Michigan, an apparition of Leona the rat terrier runs up and down the halls and barks. Oh, those terriers! Even after life! 

But be careful. Not all ghost dogs are man’s dead best friend. Like, in Valle Crucis, North Carolina, there’s a demon ghost dog, that springs out of the cemetery, will chase you down, and come right after your car!
And if you visit Hanging Hills, Connecticut– you only want to meet their legendary ghost, the Black Dog, once. Then get out of there! Because if you keep running into him, it’s a total death omen, ahh!

I think the lesson is: Don’t approach the ghosts of dogs you don’t know, or at least ask their ghost owners for permission first.
If you are experiencing a dog haunting and you’re not in any danger, take a picture and share it! Like these ladies: AngelsGhost.com 

Are the statements below TRUE or FALSE?

1.       Many people have seen ghost dogs
2.       Apparitions move on to their next life once they have visited their owners
3.       All ghost dogs are evil
4.       Seeing  the Black Dog more than once is not a good sign

1.         If you hear a mysterious creak in the staircase, you ___________________ call the police because it _________________________ a ghost dog.
2.         _______________ you ____________________________ paranormal pup activity? I have!!
3.         Some ghost dogs can be felt in spots where they _____________________  rest when they were alive.
4.         If a ghost dog is haunting you and it looks dangerous, you _____________________ take a photo.
Watch a video in which American actor Cristopher Knight is telling a ghost story.  As you listen, complete the gaps with ONE or TWO words.

“My story took place while I was on holiday in my _____________________ house.
At night we sat by the fire and started telling ghost stories about the _________________________.
Later we were sent to bed and when I was about to get to sleep, I saw _________________________ and a  _________________________.
The following morning, I wanted to see the pets, but, to my amazement, I was taken to the ____________________ and I realized that the only hunting dogs in the house were part of the fireplace screen .” 

Have you ever been told a ghost story? Has anyone you know had a paranormal experience?
Write about that creepy experience. You should add details to make it more interesting and … spookier!



In groups of 3, talk about the inventions on the cards.

Agree on the most / least useful / successful / popular, etc

Sample cards



(You can download a Word version from HERE)

FORMAL EMAILS / LETTERS are written for a variety of reasons -e.g. to present information, to make an application, to recommend someone or something, to make an application, to recommend someone or something, to complain, to apologise, etc.
INFORMAL EMAILS / LETTERS are written for several reasons but are usually written to people you know.
The main difference between formal and informal emails/letters is the language that you use. In all cases, it is essential that the email is appropriate for the target reader

How formal your email / letter needs to be, depends on the target reader and the reason for writing. It is very important to maintain the same level of formality throughout your email (in other words, you should not mix very formal expressions with very informal ones).
FORMAL STYLE includes:
} sophisticated vocabulary } impersonal tone } more frequent use of the passive voice } complex grammatical constructions } formal linking devices (e.g. Consequently,)
} Colloquial (spoken) and idiomatic English } personal tone / direct address } less frequent use of the passive voice } less complex grammatical constructions } simple linking devices } contractions


Using appropriate register
Looking for a profession that enables you to combine your passion for writing with your desire to explore the world? Consider becoming a travel writer. There are hundreds of travel guide book publishers, travel magazines, online sites and newspapers seeking articles about travel every week.

While it is unlikely that you will be able to support yourself as a full-time travel writer (most writers juggle multiple income streams) there are some very nice perks associated with this profession. In addition to being paid for your writing, you’ll typically be compensated for your lodging, travel and tour expenses – often on a first-class basis -when you travel on assignment.


Read the interview with a travel writer below and then say if the statements that follow are TRUE or  FALSE

Interview with Tim Leffel, a prolific  Travel Writer

What do you do for a living?
I’m an editor and writer for a travel website.

How would you describe what you do?
Journalism, copy editing, copy writing and the administrative work that managing a website requires — all rolled into one job.

What does your work entail?
It entails a lot of attention to detail. I find and write stories, I edit quite a few stories and I also publish content on our website.

What’s a typical work week like?
A typical work week is pretty much what you’d imagine from an office job — lots of sitting at the computer, broken up by occasional meetings. The bonus is that some weeks are very atypical, because I need to travel regularly for work.  So, every couple of months I take a trip, either to write about my travel experiences or to meet with colleagues.

How did you get started?
To break into the field, I took a contract job with a publishing house in Boston, Massachusetts, as an editorial assistant. I travelled both before and after, and when I’d built up enough writing samples to have a portfolio, I started to seek out work with guidebooks. I wound up writing as a freelance author for a guide based out of London called Rough Guides.

What do you like about what you do?
The creative aspect of my job —I can write on a daily basis, and I also like creating and laying out webpages using HTML and software like Photoshop.  I enjoy travelling and living overseas.  And I love my workplace and the company I work for, which - I guess - makes a huge difference in my overall satisfaction with my job.

What do you dislike?
The mundane details — administrative stuff and having a routine schedule to follow.

How do you make money/or how are you compensated?
I’m on salary.

What education or skills are needed to be a travel writer?
You need to be a good writer, obviously, and it helps to have plenty of travel experience. It also helps if you’re an organized person, and, like many other jobs, the more software you know, the better candidate you’re going to be.  You need to be somewhat familiar with HTML, and skill with Adobe design software like Photoshop is invaluable.

What is most challenging about what you do?
For me, it’s staying on top of all the various job duties I have and keeping organized.

What is most rewarding?
Getting to travel for free!

What advice would you offer to someone considering this career?
There are a lot of different career paths you can take as a travel writer — especially with the number of web-based media outlets that exist these days.  I write and edit for a travel website because this type of work offers more stability than working as a freelance travel writer, while still allowing me to live overseas and to travel pretty regularly. Other upsides are that I’m paid a salary, I get great benefits and I don’t have to compete to have my work published. The drawback, though, is that the work isn’t quite as exciting, I don’t make my own hours, and I have a relatively narrow range of options to choose from for my writing projects.

What are your goals/dreams for the future?
To win the lottery, have houses all over the world and a plane gassed up and ready to go. Seriously, I want to continue to travel and learn about the world both formally (in school) and casually, by finding interesting things to do and interesting people to share my time with.

Are the statements below TRUE or FALSE ?

Travel writers work long hours at the computer                          ____
They should be creative and skilled with photo editing               ____       
If writing is not your cup of tea, don’t follow this career path    ____
Freelance travel writers can’t make their own hours                   ____  
Being a travel writer only entails writing stories                         ____


Complete the sentences below with information from the interview
1.      At first he _______________________________________________________________________________ an editorial assistant.
2.        While he _______________________________________________________________ in Massachusetts, he compiled a portfolio.
3.        At the moment Mr Leffel ____________________________________________________________________ for a travel website.
4.        Writing for a travel website is ____________________________________________________ than working as a freelance writer.
5.        Mr Leffel _____________________________________________________________________________ many places in the world.
6.        Travel writers should _______________________________________________________________________________________
7.        As a travel writer, Mr Leffel usually ___________________________________________________________________________
8.        How often __________________________________________________________________________ ? Every couple of months.
9.        ________________________________________________________________________________________________________?
        Because I need to travel regularly to work.
        One of his dreams is ______________________________________________________________________.


If you enjoy working with children and would like to play a part in their education and wellbeing, a job as a teaching assistant could be ideal for you.
Watch the video “So you want to be a Teacher's Assistant” on http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J96lnTUDv2w&feature=related and then complete the gaps below with ONLY ONE word.

(You can download this video from HERE)

What is a teacher assistant?

Teaching assistants work alongside school teachers, helping the teachers relieve some of the pressure that they usually face in the classroom. Teacher assistants assist the teacher in the classroom by correcting or grading __________ and preparing visual aids to enhance the lessons.
TAs don't usually lead lessons but they may ___________ students in the cafeteria, school yard and / or field trips. They often help students with disabilities or special needs.
 Full-time teaching assistants normally work regular school hours, Monday to Friday, and the standard school year, which usually means holidays and summers _______                                                                                                                                        If you are planning to become a teacher assistant, you should take into account that the No Child Left Behind Act establishes that all assistants working in a program supported by Title I funds should have successfully completed at least
  _________ years (48 semester hours) of study at an institution of higher education.

In order to become a teacher, you must undergo years of specialized ___________________________________. 

A cover(ing) letter (or email) explains why you want a job and what makes you the right person for it.

HOW TO WRITE A COVERING LETTER (See sample in your textbook –p. 49)

} Start the letter by explaining what job you're applying for and where/when you saw it advertised.
} Then, mention how your skills and interests make you the right person for the job and say why you want to work for them.


1.        First, identify the job you are applying for

I would like to enquire as to whether there are any openings for
I am writing to apply for the post of
I would like to apply for the position of …, as advertised on your website

2.        Next, give some examples of personal achievements

I have gained experience in several major aspects of …
I have coordinated the changeover from one filing system to another
I have supervised a team of bar staff on a regular basis
I have contributed to the development of our new database
My experience in … includes...
As a [research assistant], I would...
My qualifications are based on a combination of...
These experiences make me an ideal candidate for a...

3.        Then outline your personal qualities (Write three to four points that show you have these qualities. Use the same words they

       use in the advertisement)

I see myself as systematic and meticulous in my approach to work
I am a fair and broad minded person, with an ability to get on with people from all walks of life.
I am hard-working and business- minded, and I tend to thrive under pressure.
According to your advertisement, your position requires (skills). These skills I have developed during ... (experience).
I understand the position requires (skills). I ... (details why you meet the requirements).
Following my training as a (job title), I spent (time) working for (company).
Throughout my career I have acquired thorough knowledge of ..
I have solid experience in ...
I have always had a strong interest in ...
I am very competent in ...
I very much enjoy both ... and ...
My high degree of motivation has been appreciated by my previous employers

4.        Explain why you want this job

I am keen to find a post with more responsibility
I now wish to find a more permanent full-time position
I would like to further my career in IT
I feel that your company’s activities most closely match my own values and interests.

5.        Request actions, for example indicate your desire for a personal interview and that you’re able to meet with the employer at their convenience.

I will contact you ... to arrange an interview ...
I will be in … during ... I would like very much to talk with you concerning a position at your company / (name of the company).
I am eager to talk with you about the contribution I could make to your firm.
I would appreciate the chance to meet with you to discuss how I could be a vital part of your company.
I am confident that I can perform the job effectively, and I am excited about the idea of working for your firm.
I would welcome the opportunity to discuss these and other qualifications with you.
If you would like to schedule an interview or otherwise discuss my interest in this position, please call me on (number)
If you are interested, please contact me on (number).
You may reach me at (email address)
I am sure my services would be useful to you.
I look forward to meeting you.
I look forward to talking with you.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
I look forward to meeting with you to discuss the ways my skills may best serve your company.

6.        Close the letter

Yours sincerely, (if you know the person)
Yours faithfully, (if you don’t know the addressee’s name)

DON’T FORGET: Before you sit down to write your letter do some research on the company and into the role to which you are applying.

WRITING TASK: Choose one of the job advertisements below and write a COVERING LETTER

Primary school is looking for a teaching assistant to start ASAP. The school is a short walk from the beach. No formal qualifications are needed; however, a genuine love for the job is required. Please forward CV or contact me for further information

We are looking for a graphic designer with a background in the fashion trade. You should have relevant experience and be up-to-date with fashion trends. Strong hand illustration as well as computer design is essential. Please submit a copy of your CV with relevant samples of work

Travel writer wanted to join our small team. The successful applicant will travel around the world, staying in luxury hotels, and dining in fine restaurants. He/She will need to send a weekly update, including a short review. No previous experience required, but good communication skills and a love of travel essential.